Election is the provision of public opinion in accordance with constitutional rules. People voted to elect any person and political party to come to power. In many countries, the election reform movement has developed into an independent form. Countries are advocating voting, single transferable voting, instant run of voting or condominatisation, in some countries, these methods have gained popularity in small voters. However, those traditional calculation methods are still being used in more important elections in those countries.
Different countries have seen different types of election rallies. These are:
First Paste the Post Method
This method can only be a winner or a candidate. This method is the most popular among single winners. In this process, the candidate’s candidate can choose only one candidate and the winner will be the winner among the many candidates. In this case, the winning candidate can get fewer votes than the majority of the total vote. For example, if three candidates participate in the election, 35 percent of the candidates who are eligible to vote will be the winner, while the remaining four percent will be 26 percent. This is the most popular election system. The first post in the post was voted in our country. The problem in this method is that a small gap of each of the seats creates a huge gap – for example, in the eighth parliamentary election of Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP), in which 2,330,74,714 votes (41.40 percent of the total voted vote) got 193 parliamentary seats . In Bangladesh, Awami League got 22310276 votes (40.02 percent of the total voted vote) got 62. 1.02 percent of the vote is 131 seats.
Proportional representational arrangements
The election system was followed to select more than one winner. In this system people’s representatives are elected on a proportionate basis according to the opinion of the public. For example, if the total number of seats in the country is 300, the party that got 40 percent of the votes will get 120 percent of the seats in this system.
The English name is “preferential voting methods”, in this manner the voter is asked to sort the candidates according to their preferences. In this case, he has to be given a choice in each candidate, in some cases, in which case the minimum number of candidates are selected to be selected.
Now let’s see the United Kingdom, United States of America, India, Sri Lanka, and Bhutan elections:
In the United Kingdom, the Westminster Circumstances have a dual governance system. In the thirteenth century, the modern electoral process began with the establishment of parliamentary system in England. The upper house of the Parliament of Britain is called the House of Lords or the Lord’s meeting and the Lower House or the Lower House, which is called the House of Commons or the Commons meeting. The House of Commons was elected by the votes of ordinary voters. Not only that, general voters have a great effect in the larger policy making of the country. Those who win this election are the members of the Commons meeting or the MP and their membership is valid for five years. These are the real powers in the lower house of parliament. The Prime Minister and Opposition Leader were elected from the MPs. On the other hand, in the upper room, the Lord’s people become members of their genealogy or government nomination. Their membership is valid for a lifetime or voluntary retirement. There is no special power to the upper house or the lord, except to review any bill passed by the lower house and to return it back to the reconsideration. So, those who want to do politics and want to manage the country with the real power, want to be a member of the House of Commons or the lower house. The last government is in power during elections in the UK.
United States elections are held for federal, state and local government officials. At the federal level, the President was indirectly elected by the election college. The Federal Assembly, Congress, is elected directly to all the members. There are many elected offices at the state level, each state has at least one elected governor and the legislature. At the local level, there are offices selected in the council, city, city, city, borough and the villages. According to a study by political scientist Jennifer Lahlez, 5,19,642 elected officials of the United States were present in 2012. The United States president has a government system, which means the executive and legislature are elected separately. Article United States Presidential elections in any one of the United States Constitution must be held in one day across the country; Elections for the Congress office may be held at different times. Congressional and presidential elections were held simultaneously every four years and held in the Central Congressional elections every two years. The Senate has elected 100 members and 435 members of the House of Representatives. According to the constitution, the US House of Representatives must be at least 25 years old, American citizens for at least seven years and must be a legal resident of the state they represent. Senators must be at least 30 years of age, be a United States citizen and have the legal status of the state they represent. The President is at least 35 years old, a natural born citizen of the United States and a resident of the United States for at least 14 years. The State Legislative Council is responsible for controlling the eligibility of candidates appearing on the ballot papers, although in order to reach the ballot, the candidates will often have to get the signature of the legally defined number.
Unable to vote on polling stations on polling day, voters can vote by ballot absent or unwilling voters.
Indian rule is federal There are separate legislations in the center and states. The name of the central assembly is the parliament. Indian Parliament, two-chamber -led Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha There are 543 seats in the Lok Sabha. On the basis of universal adult franchise, the people of the country choose representatives for this 543 seats. Elections are held every five years. Rajya Sabha’s membership of 245 Of these, 233 elected members of the Legislative Assembly of the states and union territories. Rajya Sabha members have a validity of six years. One-third of the members retire every two years. The remaining 12 members of the Rajya Sabha are nominated from different levels of the society.
Legislative Assembly of any state is one cell, namely assembly. In some states, there are two rooms in the Legislative Assembly and Assembly Council. Assembly in the capital Delhi and the union territory of Puducherry. Members of the Legislative Assembly are elected on the basis of universal adult franchise. And members of the Legislative Council are indirectly elected as members of the Rajya Sabha. During the elections in India, the last government is in power. Apart from this, local administration, municipalities and panchayat representatives are also elected by the public.
The politics of Sri Lanka is organized in the framework of a presidency representing the democratic republic. The President is the head of state and the head of government. The executive power of the state is entrusted to the government. The power of legislation is entrusted to both the government and the legislature. The island state of Sri Lanka is slightly more complex in the parliamentary elections. Democratic Socialist Republican Sri Lanka has total parliamentary seats of 225. Of these 196 seats are directly held and the remaining 29 seats are in proportionate proportion. The post of the 29 MPs is called the Nationalist First vote for a political party in a voter ballot. Then the voters can vote for the maximum three members of the party. When voters vote, they can vote for any three people on priority basis. This is called preferential vote. If you wish, you can also give a single vote. Firstly, voting will be canceled if you voted for a party and then voted for another party nominee. Apart from the main election, there was provision of postal voting. Government officials of each district took part in this postal ballot a few days before the voting took place. There will be 12 elected from 13 constituencies. One political party nominated 15 candidates for 12 parliamentary posts. There is no chance of being independent candidate in this election separately. To be independent candidate, all independent candidates must come to a platform and declare their candidacy and accordingly, the Election Commission will declare them as a separate candidate’s alliance.
Until May 2008, Nepal was a constitutional monarchy. With the end of 240 years of monarchy, Nepal’s legislature amended the Constitution on 28th of that month and converted Nepal into a republic. At present, Nepal’s politics takes place in the framework of a multi-party republic. The Prime Minister is the head of the government. The executive power entrusted to the government. The responsibility of legislating on the legislature is entrusted. The country has introduced a mixed representation with the proportionality of the proportion of the British system in Europe, including the British system, which can be called a unique method. According to this arrangement, in Nepal, two-thirds of the seats in the parliament of 275 seats (165) were elected in accordance with the British system or First Paste the Post method, where MPs were elected in the highest number of votes. And in the remaining one-third of the seats (110) on the basis of the vote of the party, the candidates have been selected in the order from the submitted list in sequential order. There are some countries, including Turkey, Germany, where seats are allocated to parliament from the list given in favor of the party’s votes. There is a limit on the minimum number of seats for the party to receive the seat. This number is 10 percent in Turkey. In Nepal, the combination of direct vote and proportional system has been adjusted. The proportion of the minimum voting status for the seats was fixed at 3 percent.
Bhutan is a monarchic country. There is currently a monarchy. Bhutan had an ancient monarchy in the past. Currently it is a constitutional monarchy. The king of Bhutan, whose title is the king of kings, is the head of state. A Council of Ministers administers the executive functions of the state. The power of legislation is entrusted to both the government and the parliament. Also, one of the closest advisers to the King of the Khinpo-headed King is the highest religious leader. In 2007 a ban on political parties was lifted by a royal order. In 2008, Bhutan’s King relaxed the control of power. Bhutan started in the book It still continues. Democracy has expanded in the last 10 years. Bhutan’s bicameral parliament – consists of a upper house, the National Council or the National Council and the lower house of the National Assembly. Upper house consists of 25 members: 20 members come from each district and 5 are appointed by the king according to electoral law. There are at least two conferences in the National Assembly annually. A chairperson and deputy chairperson is elected from the number of members. Members and members of the National Assembly are banned from attaining political affiliation. The lower house is comprised of 55 members. Those who are directly elected by the electoral law of the citizen’s vote from each district. In this system of proportional representation, each constituency constituency is represented by a member of the National Assembly; Must be represented by 2-7 members for 20 districts each. Seats of the Jatiya Sangsad are distributed every 10 years. At the national gathering, at least two conferences are held annually and one speaker and deputy speaker is elected from among its members. Members and candidates are allowed to join political parties. According to the Constitution of the Kingdom of Bhutan, the two-phase election phase is held in the country. Voters vote for all participating teams in the first phase. At this stage, the two most voted parties participated in the second round or the final elections. The winning party formed the government.
(Automated Machine Translation)